Calculation of High Resolution and Material-Specific Photon Energy Deposition Kernels
J Huang1,2*, N Childress3, S Kry1,2, (1) MD Anderson Cancer Ctr., Houston, TX (2) The University of Texas Health Science Center Houston, Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, Houston, TX (3) Mobius Medical Systems, LP, Houston, TXSU-E-T-510 Sunday 3:00:00 PM - 6:00:00 PM Room: Exhibit Hall
To calculate photon energy deposition kernels (EDKs) used for convolution/superposition dose calculation at a higher resolution than the original Mackie et al. 1988 kernels and to calculate material-specific kernels that describe how energy is transported and deposited by secondary particles when the incident photon interacts in a material other than water.
The high resolution EDKs for various incident photon energies were generated using the EGSnrc user-code EDKnrc, which forces incident photons to interact at the center of a 60 cm radius sphere of water. The simulation geometry is essentially the same as the original Mackie calculation but with a greater number of scoring voxels (48 radial, 144 angular bins). For the material-specific EDKs, incident photons were forced to interact at the center of a 1mm radius sphere of material (lung, cortical bone, silver, or titanium) surrounded by a 60 cm radius water sphere, using the original scoring voxel geometry implemented by Mackie et al.1988 (24 radial, 48 angular bins).
Our Monte Carlo-calculated high resolution EDKs showed excellent agreement with the Mackie kernels, with our kernels providing more information about energy deposition close to the interaction site. Furthermore, our EDKs resulted in smoother dose deposition functions due to the finer resolution and greater number of simulation histories. The material-specific EDK results show that the angular distribution of energy deposition is different for incident photons interacting in different materials. Calculated from the angular dose distribution for 300 keV incident photons, the expected polar angle for dose deposition (>) is 28.6° for water, 33.3° for lung, 36.0° for cortical bone, 44.6° for titanium, and 58.1° for silver, showing a dependence on the material in which the primary photon interacts.
These high resolution and material-specific EDKs have implications for convolution/superposition dose calculations in heterogeneous patient geometries, especially at material interfaces.