Monte Carlo Study of the Dose Enhancement Factor (DEF) for Gold Nano-Particle (GNP) On the Cellular Level
M Zhang1*, S Qin2, B Haffty1, N Yue1, (1) The Cancer Institute of New Jersey, New Brunswick, NJ, (2) The First Affiliated Hospital of Soochow University, Suzhou, Jiangsu, ChinaSU-E-T-10 Sunday 3:00:00 PM - 6:00:00 PM Room: Exhibit Hall
Purpose: In megavoltage external beam radiotherapy, in vivo cell experiments suggest GNP could be used as a radiosensitizer by having radiation dose enhancement factor (DEF) significantly larger than 1. However, Monte Carlo (MC) simulations published in the literature failed to give prove, in which most of them only simulated the interactions between the radiation beams and a single GNP. In this study, we built a multi-GNPs model considering possible spatial arrangements of GNPs relative to a cell to calculate the DEFs of GNPs.
Methods: Geant4 MC code with G4DNA physics model which can trace electrons down to eV level was used. Two types of geometry models representing different GNP-cell binding were created with each GNP modeled individually: (1) shell model with GNPs randomly and sparsely distributed in a shell in water mimicking when the GNPs were binding to the cell membrane, and (2) sphere model with GNPs randomly and sparsely distributed in a sphere in water mimicking when GNPs were floating inside the cytoplasm. Photon and electron spectrum at 5 cm in depth in water from a Varian 6MV beam was used as the radiation source. Dose to water inside the shell or the sphere representing cytoplasm were scored and compared to situations without GNPs to calculate the DEF. We also looked into the variation of DEFs due to different GNP sizes and concentrations.
Results: A 35 um water cubic were successfully built in Geant4 with spatial resolution of 100 nm. Preliminary results shown under 200 keV electron irradiation, 100 nm GNPs in the shell model shown increased dose to cell at the beam entrance (DEF = 1.08).
Conclusions: The computation is undergoing for different GNP sizes and concentrations. Meaningful results are expected on the completion of this study.