Energy Modulated Photon Radiotherapy: A Monte Carlo Investigation
Y Zhang1,2*, Y Feng1, X Ming1,2, R Nath2, J Deng2, (1) Tianjin University, Tianjin, China (2) Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CTSU-E-T-462 Sunday 3:00PM - 6:00PM Room: Exhibit Hall
Purpose: To investigate the feasibility of energy modulated photon radiation therapy (EMXRT) using Monte Carlo simulations of photon beams of various energies.
Methods: An EMXRT plan was generated for a prostate cancer patient treated with 10-MV 5-field intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) optimized using Eclipse treatment planning system. Based on beam characterization of a Varian Clinac with EGS4/BEAM Monte Carlo code, multiple source models were first generated to represent the photon beams with energy of 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 10 and 15 MV, respectively. Optimal beam energy was then selected based on the effective path-length in the patient via ray-tracing for each beam angle. An inverse planning system based on gradient search algorithm was used to optimize photon beam intensity of various beam energies with pre-simulated Monte Carlo pencil beam dose distributions in patient anatomy. Finally, both EMXRT and IMRT plans were simulated with EGS4/MCSIM for 3D dose distributions in patient and compared.
Results: Based on different path-lengths, 5, 6 and 10 MV photons were chosen in our EMXRT plan with lower energy photons used for shorter path-lengths. DVH analysis indicated that the target coverage in EMXRT plan was less uniform with Dmax and Dmin at 111.6% and 92.6% of prescription dose, respectively, as compared to 106.2% and 97.8% in regular IMRT plan. On the other hand, critical structures were much more spared in EMXRT plan than in IMRT plan, with 32% dose reduction in rectum and 40% reduction in bladder, respectively. The integral dose to the surrounding normal tissues was significantly reduced by 56% in EMXRT plan.
Conclusion: This work demonstrates the potential of this Monte Carlo based tool for investigating the feasibility and desirability of EMXRT. Further investigation on more complex tumor sites such as head and neck cancer are now in progress.
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