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A Fast and Accurate GPU-Based Proton Transport Monte Carlo Simulation for Validating Proton Therapy Treatment Plans

H Wan Chan Tseung

H Wan Chan Tseung*, J Ma , C Beltran , Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN


MO-A-BRD-10 Monday 7:30AM - 9:30AM Room: Ballroom D

Purpose: To build a GPU-based Monte Carlo (MC) simulation of proton transport with detailed modeling of elastic and non-elastic (NE) proton-nucleus interactions, for use in a very fast and cost-effective proton therapy treatment plan verification system.

Methods: Using the CUDA framework, we implemented kernels for the following tasks: (1) Simulation of beam spots from our possible scanning nozzle configurations, (2) Proton propagation through CT geometry, taking into account nuclear elastic and multiple scattering, as well as energy straggling, (3) Bertini-style modeling of the intranuclear cascade stage of NE interactions, and (4) Simulation of nuclear evaporation. To validate our MC, we performed: (1) Secondary particle yield calculations in NE collisions with therapeutically-relevant nuclei, (2) Pencil-beam dose calculations in homogeneous phantoms, (3) A large number of treatment plan dose recalculations, and compared with Geant4.9.6p2/TOPAS. A workflow was devised for calculating plans from a commercially available treatment planning system, with scripts for reading DICOM files and generating inputs for our MC.

Results: Yields, energy and angular distributions of secondaries from NE collisions on various nuclei are in good agreement with the Geant4.9.6p2 Bertini and Binary cascade models. The 3D-gamma pass rate at 2%-2mm for 70-230 MeV pencil-beam dose distributions in water, soft tissue, bone and Ti phantoms is 100%. The pass rate at 2%-2mm for treatment plan calculations is typically above 98%. The net computational time on a NVIDIA GTX680 card, including all CPU-GPU data transfers, is around 20s for 1x10⁷ proton histories.

Conclusion: Our GPU-based proton transport MC is the first of its kind to include a detailed nuclear model to handle NE interactions on any nucleus. Dosimetric calculations demonstrate very good agreement with Geant4.9.6p2/TOPAS. Our MC is being integrated into a framework to perform fast routine clinical QA of pencil-beam treatment plans. Hardware for such a system will cost under $5000.

Funding Support, Disclosures, and Conflict of Interest: This work was funded in part by a grant from Varian Medical Systems, Inc.

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