2016 AAPM Annual Meeting
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Session Title: Recent Advances in Virtual Tools for Validation of 3D/4D Breast Imaging Systems (TG234)
Question 1: What non-x-ray imaging modalities have been recommended for breast cancer screening by the American College of Radiology?
Reference:Lee, Carol H., et al. "Breast cancer screening with imaging: recommendations from the Society of Breast Imaging and the ACR on the use of mammography, breast MRI, breast ultrasound, and other technologies for the detection of clinically occult breast cancer." Journal of the American college of radiology 7.1 (2010): 18-27.
Choice A:Ultrasound.
Choice B:Magnetic resonance.
Choice C:Ultrasound AND magnetic resonance.
Choice D:Magnetic resonance AND positron emission tomography.
Choice E:Magnetic resonance AND positron emission tomography AND ultrasound.
Question 2: A major challenge in extending virtual clinical trials used in x-ray breast imaging to MRI is.....
Reference:Mann R. M., et al. “Breast MRI: guidelines from the European Society of Breast Imaging.” Eur Radiol (2008) 18: 1307–1318
Choice A:Breast MRI has higher spatial resolution.
Choice B:Breast MRI uses more breast compression.
Choice C:Breast MRI uses dynamic contrast.
Choice D:Breast MRI is more expensive.
Question 3: Which of the following represents a major obstacle in breast radiology-pathology correlation?
Reference:Pantanowitz L, Valenstein PN, Evans AJ, Kaplan KJ, Pfeifer JD, Wilbur DC, Collins LC, Colgan TC, “Review of the current state of whole slide imaging in pathology,” J Pathol Inform 2: 36 (2011)
Choice A:Lack of accurate co-location of standard pathology samples and whole breast radiology images.
Choice B:Computer memory requirements for storing digitized wholemount pathology images.
Choice C:Cost of immunohistochemistry staining.
Choice D:Breast density.
Question 4: Which are the most critical components of a software breast phantom, for the realistic simulation of the lesion detection in mammography?
Reference:Kopans, DB, Breast Imaging, 2nd edition, Lippincott Raven, Philadelphia, New York, 1998.
Choice A:Shape of the breast outline.
Choice B:Mixture of adipose and glandular anatomical structures.
Choice C:Breast volumetric density.
Choice D:Electronic noise.
Question 5: Which of the following statements may be explained by the psychometric function in Barten’s model of human visual system?
Reference:P.G.J. Barten, Contrast sensitivity of the human eye and its effects on image quality, SPIE Optical Engineering Press, Bellingham, WA, 1999.
Choice A:Small lesions are less conspicuous than larger ones.
Choice B:Perceived signal strength is a nonlinear function of its modulation.
Choice C:It is possible for a human observer to detect a non-existing signal.
Choice D:Medium-sized lesions (~0.5 visual degree) are more conspicuous than larger lesions.
Choice E:B and C.
Question 6: Which of the following statements may be explained by contrast masking effect?
Reference:Avanaki et al (2014). It is hard to see a needle in a haystack: Modeling contrast masking effect in a numerical observer. In Breast Imaging (pp. 723-730). Springer International Publishing.
Choice A:Perceived signal strength is a nonlinear function of its modulation.
Choice B:Medium-sized lesions (~0.5 visual degree) are more conspicuous than larger lesions.
Choice C:Band-pass noise far from the frequency of a sinusoidal signal does not affect its detection.
Choice D:Two dimensional spatial sinusoids with different orientations do not affect the detection of each other.
Choice E:C and D.
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