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JUNIOR INVESTIGATOR WINNER - Low-Dose C-Arm Cone-Beam CT with Model-Based Image Reconstruction for High-Quality Guidance of Neurosurgical Intervention

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A Wang

A Wang*, J Stayman , Y Otake , G Gallia , J Siewerdsen , Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD


WE-G-18A-1 Wednesday 4:30PM - 6:00PM Room: 18A

Purpose: To address the challenges of image quality, radiation dose, and reconstruction speed in intraoperative cone-beam CT (CBCT) for neurosurgery by combining model-based image reconstruction (MBIR) with accelerated algorithmic and computational methods.

Methods: Preclinical studies involved a mobile C-arm for CBCT imaging of two anthropomorphic head phantoms that included simulated imaging targets (ventricles, soft-tissue structures/bleeds) and neurosurgical procedures (deep brain stimulation (DBS) electrode insertion) for assessment of image quality. The penalized likelihood (PL) framework was used for MBIR, incorporating a statistical model with image regularization via an edge-preserving penalty. To accelerate PL reconstruction, the ordered-subset, separable quadratic surrogates (OS-SQS) algorithm was modified to incorporate Nesterov’s method and implemented on a multi-GPU system. A fair comparison of image quality between PL and conventional filtered backprojection (FBP) was performed by selecting reconstruction parameters that provided matched low-contrast spatial resolution.

Results: CBCT images of the head phantoms demonstrated that PL reconstruction improved image quality (~28% higher CNR) even at half the radiation dose (3.3 mGy) compared to FBP. A combination of Nesterov’s method and fast projectors yielded a PL reconstruction run-time of 251 sec (cf., 5729 sec for OS-SQS, 13 sec for FBP). Insertion of a DBS electrode resulted in severe metal artifact streaks in FBP reconstructions, whereas PL was intrinsically robust against metal artifact. The combination of noise and artifact was reduced from 32.2 HU in FBP to 9.5 HU in PL, thereby providing better assessment of device placement and potential complications.

Conclusion: The methods can be applied to intraoperative CBCT for guidance and verification of neurosurgical procedures (DBS electrode insertion, biopsy, tumor resection) and detection of complications (intracranial hemorrhage). Significant improvement in image quality, dose reduction, and reconstruction time of ~4 min will enable practical deployment of low-dose C-arm CBCT within the operating room.

Funding Support, Disclosures, and Conflict of Interest: AAPM Research Seed Funding (2013-2014); NIH Fellowship F32EB017571; Siemens Healthcare (XP Division)

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