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Evaluation of Deformable Registration of PET/CT Images for Cervical Cancer Brachytherapy

Y Liao

Y Liao1*, T Kadir2 , J Turian3 , A Templeton4 , K Kiel5 , J Chu6 , (1) Rush University Medical Center, Chicago, IL, (2) Mirada Medical Ltd., Oxford, Oxfordshire, (3) Rush University Medical Center, Chicago, IL, (4) Rush University Medical Center, Chicago, IL, (5) Rush University Medical Center, Chicago, IL, (6) Rush University Medical Center, Chicago, IL


SU-E-J-222 Sunday 3:00PM - 6:00PM Room: Exhibit Hall

Purpose: PET/CT provides important functional information for radiotherapy targeting of cervical cancer. However, repeated PET/CT procedures for external beam and subsequent brachytherapy expose patients to additional radiation and are not cost effective. Our goal is to investigate the possibility of propagating PET-active volumes for brachytherapy procedures through deformable image registration (DIR) of earlier PET/CT and ultimately to minimize the number of PET/CT image sessions required.

Methods: Nine cervical cancer patients each received their brachytherapy preplanning PET/CT at the end of EBRT with a Syed template in place. The planning PET/CT was acquired on the day of brachytherapy treatment with the actual applicator (Syed or Tandem and Ring) and rigidly registered. The PET/CT images were then deformably registered creating a third (deformed) image set for target prediction. Regions of interest with standardized uptake values (SUV) greater than 65% of maximum SUV were contoured as target volumes in all three sets of PET images. The predictive value of the registered images was evaluated by comparing the preplanning and deformed PET volumes with the planning PET volume using Dice’s coefficient (DC) and center-of-mass (COM) displacement.

Results: The average DCs were 0.12±0.14 and 0.19±0.16 for rigid and deformable predicted target volumes, respectively. The average COM displacements were 1.9±0.9 cm and 1.7±0.7 cm for rigid and deformable registration, respectively. The DCs were improved by deformable registration, however, both were lower than published data for DIR in other modalities and clinical sites. Anatomical changes caused by different brachytherapy applicators could have posed a challenge to the DIR algorithm. The physiological change from interstitial needle placement may also contribute to lower DC.

Conclusion: The clinical use of DIR in PET/CT for cervical cancer brachytherapy appears to be limited by applicator choice and requires further investigation.

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