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A Comprehensive Comparison Between Alpha and Beta Emitters for Cancer Radioimmunotherapy

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C Huang

C.Y. Huang1*, S Guatelli2 , B Oborn3 , B Allen4 , (1) University of Sydney, Camperdown, NSW(2) University of Wollongong, Wollongong, NSW, (3) Illawarra Cancer Care Centre, Wollongong, NSW, (4) University of Western Sydney, Liverpool, NSW


SU-E-J-3 Sunday 3:00PM - 6:00PM Room: Exhibit Hall

Purpose: The purpose of this study is to perform a comprehensive comparison of the therapeutic efficacy and cytotoxicity of alpha and beta emitters for Radioimmunotherapy (RIT). For each stage of cancer development, specific models were built for the separate objectives of RIT to be addressed:
a) kill isolated cancer cells in transit in the lymphatic and vascular circulation,
b) regress avascular cell clusters,
c) regress tumor vasculature and tumors.

Methods: Because of the nature of short range, high LET alpha and long energy beta radiation and heterogeneous antigen expression among cancer cells, the microdosimetric approach is essential for the RIT assessment. Geant4 based microdosimetric models are developed for the three different stages of cancer progression: cancer cells, cell clusters and tumors. The energy deposition, specific energy resulted from different source distribution in the three models was calculated separately for 4 alpha emitting radioisotopes (211At, 213Bi, 223Ra and 225Ac) and 6 beta emitters (32P, 33P, 67Cu, 90Y, 131I and 177Lu). The cell survival, therapeutic efficacy and cytotoxicity are determined and compared between alpha and beta emitters.

Results: We show that internal targeted alpha radiation has advantages over beta radiation for killing isolated cancer cells, regressing small cell clusters and also solid tumors. Alpha particles have much higher dose specificity and potency than beta particles. They can deposit 3 logs more dose than beta emitters to single cells and solid tumor. Tumor control probability relies on deep penetration of radioisotopes to cancer cell clusters and solid tumors.

Conclusion: The results of this study provide a quantitative understanding of the efficacy and cytotoxicity of RIT for each stage of cancer development.

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