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Temporally Realistic Manipulation a 4D Biomechanical Lung Phantom for Evaluation of Simultaneous Registration and Segmentation

D Markel

D Markel*, I R. Levesque , J Larkin , P Leger , I El Naqa , McGill University, Montreal, QC


MO-AB-BRA-9 (Monday, July 13, 2015) 7:30 AM - 9:30 AM Room: Ballroom A

Purpose:To produce multi-modality compatible, realistic datasets for the joint evaluation of segmentation and registration with a reliable ground truth using a 4D biomechanical lung phantom. The further development of a computer controlled air flow system for recreation of real patient breathing patterns is incorporated for additional evaluation of motion prediction algorithms.

Methods:A pair of preserved porcine lungs was pneumatically manipulated using an in-house computer controlled respirator. The respirator consisted of a set of bellows actuated by a 186 W computer controlled industrial motor. Patient breathing traces were recorded using a respiratory bellows belt during CT simulation and input into a control program incorporating a proportional-integral-derivative (PID) feedback controller in LabVIEW. Mock tumors were created using dual compartment vacuum sealed sea sponges. 65% iohexol,a gadolinium-based contrast agent and 18F-FDG were used to produce contrast and thus determine a segmentation ground truth. The intensity distributions of the compartments were then digitally matched for the final dataset. A bifurcation tracking pipeline provided a registration ground truth using the bronchi of the lung. The lungs were scanned using a GE Discovery-ST PET/CT scanner and a Phillips Panorama 0.23T MRI using a T1 weighted 3D fast field echo (FFE) protocol.

Results:The standard deviation of the error between the patient breathing trace and the encoder feedback from the respirator was found to be ±4.2%. Bifurcation tracking error using CT (0.97x0.97x3.27 mm³ resolution) was found to be sub-voxel up to 7.8 cm displacement for human lungs and less than 1.32 voxel widths in any axis up to 2.3 cm for the porcine lungs.

Conclusion:An MRI/PET/CT compatible anatomically and temporally realistic swine lung phantom was developed for the evaluation of simultaneous registration and segmentation algorithms. With the addition of custom software and mock tumors, the entire package offers ground truths for benchmarking performance with high fidelity.

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