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Four-Dimensional Dose Reconstruction Through Retrospective Phase Determination Using Cine Images of Electronic Portal Imaging Device

J Yoon

J Yoon1*, J Jung1 , B Yi2 , J Kim3 , I Yeo4 , (1) East Carolina University, Greenville, NC, (2) Univ. of Maryland School Of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, (3) University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, Pittsburgh, PA, (4) Loma Linda Univ Medical Center, Loma Linda, CA


WE-D-BRA-3 (Wednesday, July 15, 2015) 11:00 AM - 12:15 PM Room: Ballroom A

Purpose:To test a method to reconstruct a four-dimensional (4D) dose distribution using the correlation of pre-calculated 4D electronic portal imaging device (EPID) images and measured cine-EPID images.

Methods:1. A phantom designed to simulate a tumor in lung (a polystyrene block with 3.0 cm diameter embedded in cork) was placed on a sinusoidally moving platform with 2 cm amplitude and 4 sec/cycle. Ten-phase 4D CT images were acquired for treatment planning and dose reconstruction. A 6MV photon beam was irradiated on the phantom with static (field size=5x8.5 cm²) and dynamic fields (sliding windows, 10x10 cm², X1 MLC closing in parallel with the tumor movement). 2. 4D and 3D doses were calculated forwardly on PTV (1 cm margin). 3. Dose images on EPID under the fields were calculated for 10 phases. 4. Cine EPID images were acquired during irradiation. 5. Their acquisition times were correlated to the phases of the phantom at which irradiation occurred by inter-comparing calculated “reference” EPID images with measured images (2D gamma comparison). For the dynamic beam, the tumor was hidden under MLCs during a portion of irradiation time; the correlation performed when the tumor was visible was extrapolated. 6. Dose for each phase was reconstructed on the 4D CT images and summed over all phases. The summation was compared with forwardly calculated 4D and 3D dose distributions. Monte Carlo methods were used for all calculations.

Results:For the open and dynamic beams, the 4D reconstructed doses showed the pass rates of 92.7 % and 100 %, respectively, at the isocenter plane given 3% / 3 mm criteria. The better agreement of the dynamic beam was from its dose gradient which blurred the otherwise sharp difference between forward and reconstructed doses. This also contributed slightly better agreement in DVH of PTV.

Conclusion:The feasibility of 4D reconstruction was demonstrated.

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