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Dose Enhancement Due to Nanoparticle Addition in Skin Radiotherapy: A Monte Carlo Study Using Kilovoltage Photon Beams

J Chow

X Zheng1 , J Chow2*, (1) Ryerson University, Toronto, ON, (2) Princess Margaret Cancer Centre, Toronto, ON


SU-F-T-361 (Sunday, July 31, 2016) 3:00 PM - 6:00 PM Room: Exhibit Hall

Purpose:This study investigated the dose enhancement due to addition of nanoparticles with different types and concentrations in skin radiotherapy using kilovoltage photon beams.

Methods:An inhomogeneous water phantom (15x15x10 cm³) having the skin target layer (0.5-5 mm), added with different concentrations (3-40 mg/ml) of nanoparticles (Au, Pt, I, Ag and Fe₂O₃), was irradiated by the 105 and 220 kVp photon beams produced by a Gulmay D3225 Orthovoltage unit. The circular cone of 5-cm diameter and source-to-surface distance of 20 cm were used. Doses in the skin target layer with and without adding the nanoparticles were calculated using Monte Carlo simulation (the EGSnrc code) through the macroscopic approach. Dose enhancement ratio (DER), defined as the ratio of dose at the target with nanoparticle addition to the dose without addition, was calculated for each type and concentration of nanoparticle in different target thickness.

Results:For Au nanoparticle, DER dependence on target thickness for the 220 kVp photon beams was not significant. However, DER for Au nanoparticle was found decreasing with an increase of target thickness when the nanoparticle concentration was increased from 18 to 40 mg/ml using the 105 kVp photon beams. For nanoparticle concentration of 40 mg/ml, DER variation with target thickness was not significant for the 220 kVp photon beams, but DEF was found decreasing with the target thickness when lower energy of photon beam (105 kVp) was used. DEF was found increasing with an increase of nanoparticle concentration. The higher the DEF increasing rate, the higher the atomic number of the nanoparticle except I and Ag for the same target thickness.

Conclusion:It is concluded that nanoparticle addition can result in dose enhancement in kilovoltage skin radiotherapy. Moreover, the DER is related to the photon beam energy, target thickness, atomic number and concentration of nanoparticles.

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