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Experimental Characterization of Field Size Dependence of Dose and Lateral Beam Profiles of Scanning Proton and Carbon Ion Beams for Empirical Model in Air

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Y Li

Y Li*, W Hsi, J Zhao, Department of Medical physics at Shanghai Proton and Heavy Ion Center, Fudan University Cancer Hospital, Shanghai, China


SU-F-T-158 (Sunday, July 31, 2016) 3:00 PM - 6:00 PM Room: Exhibit Hall

Purpose: The Gaussian model for the lateral profiles in air is crucial for an accurate treatment planning system. The field size dependence of dose and the lateral beam profiles of scanning proton and carbon ion beams are due mainly to particles undergoing multiple Coulomb scattering in the beam line components and secondary particles produced by nuclear interactions in the target, both of which depend upon the energy and species of the beam. In this work, lateral profile shape parameters were fitted to measurements of field size dependence dose at the center of field size in air.

Methods: Previous studies have employed empirical fits to measured profile data to significantly reduce the QA time required for measurements. From this approach to derive the weight and sigma of lateral profiles in air, empirical model formulations were simulated for three selected energies for both proton and carbon beams.

Results: The 20%–80% lateral penumbras predicted by the double model for proton and single model for carbon with the error functions agreed with the measurements within 1 mm. The standard deviation between measured and fitted field size dependence of dose for empirical model in air has a maximum accuracy of 0.74% for proton with double Gaussian, and of 0.57% for carbon with single Gaussian.

Conclusion: We have demonstrated that the double Gaussian model of lateral beam profiles is significantly better than the single Gaussian model for proton while a single Gaussian model is sufficient for carbon. The empirical equation may be used to double check the separately obtained model that is currently used by the planning system. The empirical model in air for dose of spot scanning proton and carbon ion beams cannot be directly used for irregular shaped patient fields, but can be to provide reference values for clinical use and quality assurance.

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