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Physics Considerations Regarding Dosimetric Accuracy of Analytical Dose Calculations for Small Field Proton Therapy: A Monte Carlo Study

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C Geng

C Geng1,2*, J Daartz1 , K Cheung1 , M Bussiere1 , H Shih1 , H Paganetti1 , J Schuemann1 , (1) Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA, (2) Nanjing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Nanjing, China


SU-F-T-157 (Sunday, July 31, 2016) 3:00 PM - 6:00 PM Room: Exhibit Hall

To evaluate the accuracy of dose calculations by analytical dose calculation methods (ADC) for small field proton therapy in a gantry based passive scattering facility.
Methods and materials:
50 patients with intra-cranial disease were evaluated in the study. Treatment plans followed standard prescription and optimization procedures of proton stereotactic radiosurgery. Dose distributions calculated with the Monte Carlo (MC) toolkit TOPAS were used to represent delivered treatments. The MC dose was first adjusted using the output factor (OF) applied clinically. This factor is determined from the field size and the prescribed range. We then introduced a normalization factor to measure the difference in mean dose between the delivered dose (MC dose with OF) and the dose calculated by ADC for each beam. The normalization was determined by the mean dose of the center voxels of the target area. We compared delivered dose distributions and those calculated by ADC in terms of dose volume histogram parameters and beam range distributions.
The mean target dose for a whole treatment is generally within 5% comparing delivered dose (MC dose with OF) and ADC dose. However, the differences can be as great as 11% for shallow and small target treated with a thick range compensator. Applying the normalization factor to the MC dose with OF can reduce the mean dose difference to less than 3%. Considering range uncertainties, the generally applied margins (3.5% of the prescribed range + 1mm) to cover uncertainties in range might not be sufficient to guarantee tumor coverage. The range difference for R90 (90% distal dose falloff) is affected by multiple factors, such as the heterogeneity index.
This study indicates insufficient accuracy calculating proton doses using ADC. Our results suggest that uncertainties of target doses are reduced using MC techniques, improving the dosimetric accuracy for proton stereotactic radiosurgery.

Funding Support, Disclosures, and Conflict of Interest: The work was supported by NIH/NCI under CA U19 021239. CG was partially supported by the Chinese Scholarship Council (CSC) and the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 11475087).

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