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Treatment Site and View Recognition in X-Ray Images with Hierarchical Multiclass Recognition Models

X Chang

X Chang*, T Mazur , D Yang , Washington University in St Louis, St Louis, MO


TU-FG-209-12 (Tuesday, August 2, 2016) 1:45 PM - 3:45 PM Room: 209

Purpose:To investigate an approach of automatically recognizing anatomical sites and imaging views (the orientation of the image acquisition) in 2D X-ray images.

Methods: A hierarchical (binary tree) multiclass recognition model was developed to recognize the treatment sites and views in x-ray images. From top to bottom of the tree, the treatment sites are grouped hierarchically from more general to more specific. Each node in the hierarchical model was designed to assign images to one of two categories of anatomical sites. The binary image classification function of each node in the hierarchical model is implemented by using a PCA transformation and a support vector machine (SVM) model. The optimal PCA transformation matrices and SVM models are obtained by learning from a set of sample images. Alternatives of the hierarchical model were developed to support three scenarios of site recognition that may happen in radiotherapy clinics, including two or one X-ray images with or without view information. The performance of the approach was tested with images of 120 patients from six treatment sites – brain, head-neck, breast, lung, abdomen and pelvis – with 20 patients per site and two views (AP and RT) per patient.

Results: Given two images in known orthogonal views (AP and RT), the hierarchical model achieved a 99% average F1 score to recognize the six sites. Site specific view recognition models have 100 percent accuracy. The computation time to process a new patient case (preprocessing, site and view recognition) is 0.02 seconds.

Conclusion: The proposed hierarchical model of site and view recognition is effective and computationally efficient. It could be useful to automatically and independently confirm the treatment sites and views in daily setup x-ray 2D images. It could also be applied to guide subsequent image processing tasks, e.g. site and view dependent contrast enhancement and image registration.

Funding Support, Disclosures, and Conflict of Interest: The senior author received research grants from ViewRay Inc. and Varian Medical System.

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