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Feasibility of Single-Inhalation/Single-Energy Xenon CT for High-Resolution Imaging of Regional Lung Ventilation in Humans

D Pinkham

D Pinkham1*, M Negahdar2 , E Schueler1 , T Yamamoto3 , M Diehn1 , E Mittra1 , B Loo1 , P Maxim1 , (1) Stanford University School of Medicine, Palo Alto, California (2) IBM Research Center, San Jose, California, (3) University of California Davis Medical Center, Sacramento, CA


WE-AB-202-8 (Wednesday, August 3, 2016) 7:30 AM - 9:30 AM Room: 202

Purpose: To demonstrate the efficacy of a novel functional lung imaging method that utilizes single-inhalation, single-energy xenon CT (Xe-CT) lung ventilation scans, and to compare it against the current clinical standard, ventilation single-photon emission CT (V-SPECT).

Methods: In an IRB-approved clinical study, 14 patients undergoing thoracic radiotherapy received two successive single inhalation, single energy (80keV) CT images of the entire lung using 100% oxygen and a 70%/30% xenon-oxygen mixture. A subset of ten patients also received concurrent SPECT ventilation scans. Anatomic reproducibility between the two scans was achieved using a custom video biofeedback apparatus. The CT images were registered to each other by deformable registration, and a calculated difference image served as surrogate xenon ventilation map. Both lungs were partitioned into twelve sectors, and a sector-wise correlation was performed between the xenon and V-SPECT scans. A linear regression model was developed with forced expiratory volume (FEV) as a predictor and the coefficient of variation (CoV) as the outcome.

Results: The ventilation comparison for five of the patients had either moderate to strong Pearson correlation coefficients (0.47 to 0.69, p<0.05). Of these, four also had moderate to strong Spearman correlation coefficients (0.46 to 0.80, p<0.03). The patients with the strongest correlation had clear regional ventilation deficits. The patient comparisons with the weakest correlations had more homogeneous ventilation distributions, and those patients also had diminished lung function as assessed by spirometry. Analysis of the relationship between CoV and FEV yielded a non-significant trend toward negative correlation (Pearson coefficient -0.60, p<0.15).

Conclusion: Significant correlations were found between the Xe-CT and V-SPECT ventilation imagery. The results from this small cohort of patients indicate that single inhalation, single energy Xe-CT has the potential to quantify regional lung ventilation volumetrically with high resolution using widely accessible radiologic equipment.

Funding Support, Disclosures, and Conflict of Interest: Bill Loo and Peter Maxim are founders of TibaRay, Inc. Bill Loo is also a board member. Bill Loo and Peter Maxim have received research grants from Varian Medical Systems, Inc. and RaySearch Laboratory

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