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Breast Cancer Identification Through X-Ray Coherent Scatter Spectral Imaging

A Kapadia

A Kapadia*, R Morris , K Albanese , J Spencer , S McCall , J Greenberg , Duke University, Durham, North Carolina


TH-AB-209-10 (Thursday, August 4, 2016) 7:30 AM - 9:30 AM Room: 209

Purpose:We have previously described the development and testing of a coherent-scatter spectral imaging system for identification of cancer. Our prior evaluations were performed using either tissue surrogate phantoms or formalin-fixed tissue obtained from pathology. Here we present the first results from a scatter imaging study using fresh breast tumor tissues obtained through surgical excision.

Methods: A coherent-scatter imaging system was built using a clinical X-ray tube, photon counting detectors, and custom-designed coded-apertures. System performance was characterized using calibration phantoms of biological materials. Fresh breast tumors were obtained from patients undergoing mastectomy and lumpectomy surgeries for breast cancer. Each specimen was vacuum-sealed, scanned using the scatter imaging system, and then sent to pathology for histological workup. Scatter images were generated separately for each tissue specimen and analyzed to identify voxels containing malignant tissue. The images were compared against histological analysis (H&E + pathologist identification of tumors) to assess the match between scatter-based and histological diagnosis.

Results: In all specimens scanned, the scatter images showed the location of cancerous regions within the specimen. The detection and classification was performed through automated spectral matching without the need for manual intervention. The scatter spectra corresponding to cancer tissue were found to be in agreement with those reported in literature. Inter-patient variability was found to be within limits reported in literature. The scatter images showed agreement with pathologist-identified regions of cancer. Spatial resolution for this configuration of the scanner was determined to be 2-3 mm, and the total scan time for each specimen was under 15 minutes.

Conclusion:This work demonstrates the utility of coherent scatter imaging in identifying cancer based on the scatter properties of the tissue. It presents the first results from coherent scatter imaging of fresh (unfixed) breast tissue using our coded-aperture scatter imaging approach for cancer identification.

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