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CT-Texture Based Early Tumor Treatment Response Assessment During Radiation Therapy Delivery: Small Cell Versus Non-Small Cell Lung Cancers

J Paul

J Paul*, E Gore , X Li , Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI


SU-F-R-54 (Sunday, July 31, 2016) 3:00 PM - 6:00 PM Room: Exhibit Hall

Purpose: Tumor treatment response may potentially be assessed during radiation therapy (RT) by analyzing changes in CT-textures. We investigated the different early RT-responses between small cell (SCLC) and non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) as assessed by CT-texture.

Methods: Daily diagnostic-quality CT acquired during routine CT-guided RT using a CT-on-Rails for 13-NSCLC and 5-SCLC patients were analyzed. These patient had ages ranging from 45-78 and 38-63 years, respectively, for NSCLC and SCLC groups, and tumor-stages ranging from T2-T4, and were treated with either RT or chemotherapy and RT with 45-66Gy/ 20-34 fractions. Gross-tumor volume (GTV) contour was generated on each daily CT by populating GTV contour from simulation to daily CTs with manual editing if necessary. CT-texture parameters, such as Hounsfield Unit (HU) histogram, mean HU, skewness, kurtosis, entropy, and short-run high-gray level emphasis (SRHGLE), were calculated in GTV from each daily CT-set using an in house software tool. Difference in changes of these texture parameters during RT between NSCLC and SCLC was analyzed and compared with GTV volume changes.

Results: Radiation-induced changes in CT-texture were different between SCLC and NSCLC. Average changes from first to the last fractions for NSCLC and SCLC in GTV were 28±10(12-44) and 30±15(11-47) HU (mean HU reduction), 12.7% and 18.3% (entropy), 50% and 55% (SRHGLE), 19% and 22% (kurtosis), and 5.2% and 22% (skewness), respectively. Good correlation in kurtosis changes and GTV was seen (R²=0.8923) for SCLC, but not for NSCLC (R²=0.4748). SCLC had better correlations between GTV volume reduction and entropy (SCLC R²=0.847; NSCLC R²=0.6485), skewness (SCLC R²=0.935; NSCLC R²=0.7666), or SRHGLE (SCLC R²=0.9619; NSCLC R²=0.787).

Conclusion: NSCLC and SCLC exhibited different early RT-responses as assessed by CT-texture changes during RT-delivery. The observed larger changes in various CT-texture parameters for SCLC indicate that SCLC may respond to RT more rapid than NSCLC.

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