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Early Detection of Treatment Induced Bone Marrow Injury During Chemoradiation Therapy Using Quantitative CT

X Chen

X Chen*, Y Song , B Erickson , X Li , Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI


SU-F-R-55 (Sunday, July 31, 2016) 3:00 PM - 6:00 PM Room: Exhibit Hall

Acute hematologic toxicity associated with bone marrow injury is a common complication of chemoradiation therapy (CRT) for pelvic malignancies. In this work, we investigate the feasibility of using quantitative CT to detect bone marrow injury during CRT.

Daily CTs were acquired during routine CT-guided radiation therapy using a CT-on-rails for 15 cervical cancer patients. All patients treated with a radiation dose of 45.0 to 50.4 Gy in 1.8 Gy/fraction along with chemotherapy. For each patient, the contours of bone marrow were generated in L4, L5 and sacrum on the first daily CT and then populated to other daily CTs by rigid registration using MIM (MIM Software Inc., Cleveland, OH) with manual editing if possible. A series of CT texture parameters, including Hunsfield Unit (HU) histogram, mean HU, entropy, energy, in bone marrow contours were calculated using MATLAB on each daily CT and were correlated with the completed blood counts (CBC) collected weekly for each patient. The correlations were analyzed with Pearson correlation tests.

For all patient data analyzed, mean HU in bone marrow decreased during CRT delivery. From the first to the last fraction the average mean HU reduction is 58.1 ± 13.6 HU (P<0.01). This decrease can be observed as early as after first 5 fractions and is strongly associated with the changes of most CBC quantities, such as the reductions of white and blood cell counts (r=0.97, P=0.001). The reduction of HU is spatially varied.

Chemoradiation induced bone marrow injury can be detected during the delivery of CRT using quantitative CT. Chemoradiation results in reductions in mean HU, which are strongly associated with the change in the pretrial blood cell counts. Early detection of bone marrow injury with commonly available CT opens a door to improve bone marrow sparing, reducing risk of hematologic toxicity.

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