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Development of An Anthropomorphic Deformable Lung Phantom

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D Shin

D Shin1, S Kang2 , K Kim1 , T Kim1 , D Kim1 , D Yoon1 , T Yamamoto3* , T Suh1* , (1) The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul, Korea, (2) Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul, Korea, (3) UC Davis School of Medicine, Sacramento, CA


TH-CD-601-4 (Thursday, August 3, 2017) 10:00 AM - 12:00 PM Room: 601

Purpose: Several deformable lung phantoms have been proposed for investigation of 4D imaging and radiotherapy techniques. However, the complex anatomy of the lungs and airways is not typically modeled. The purpose of this study was to develop an anthropomorphic deformable lung phantom and evaluate its characteristics.

Methods: The phantom consists of: (1) an iodine-infused flexible urethane foam to simulate the lung parenchyma, (2) a 3D-printed deformable airway model, and (3) an in-house programmable motion platform. A 3D-printed airway model (diameter range, 1–16 mm) was developed using diagnostic CT image of a canine through image segmentation, computer-aided design modeling, and 3D printing. The 3D-printed airway model was used as a mold to cast the flexible foam such that the airway was surrounded by the foam. Repeat CT scans were performed at end-inhalation and end-exhalation phases over the time frame of 2 hours to quantify the density, motion, and deformation of the lung parenchyma, and to evaluate their reproducibility. Deformation vector fields (DVFs) were acquired using deformable image registration. The diameter variation of the airway was calculated to evaluate the airway deformation.

Results: The peak CT numbers of the parenchyma model were -798.2±3.3 and -710.6±3.3 HU on average at end-inhalation and end-exhalation, respectively, which were comparable to the human lung density. Variations in the peak CT number were less than 7 HU. From visual inspection, the DVF was also similar to the human lung with greater displacements in lower regions than in upper regions. The length of deformation vector differences between the repeat scans was found to be less than 1 mm on average. The mean difference of the airway diameter between two phases was 0.81±0.43 mm.

Conclusion: The deformable lung phantom proposed in this study was found to mimic the human airways and lung parenchyma with reproducible density, motion, and deformation.

Funding Support, Disclosures, and Conflict of Interest: This research was supported by the Mid-career Researcher Program through NRF funded by the Ministry of Science, ICT & Future Planning of Korea (NRF-2014R1A2A1A10050270) and by the Radiation Technology R&D program through the National Research Foundation of Korea funded by the Ministry of Science, ICT & Future Planning (No. 2015M2A2A7038291)

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