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Does the Greater Flexibility of Pencil Beam Scanning Reduce the Need for a Proton Gantry?

S Yan

S Yan*, N Depauw , J Flanz , J Adams , BL Gorissen , H Shih , T Bortfeld , H Lu , Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Department of Radiation Oncology, Boston, MA


SU-F-T-207 (Sunday, July 31, 2016) 3:00 PM - 6:00 PM Room: Exhibit Hall

Purpose:Gantry-less proton treatment facility could lower the capital cost of proton therapy. This study investigates the dosimetric feasibility of using only coplanar pencil beam scanning (PBS) beams for those patients who had beam angles that would not have been deliverable without the gantry. Those coplanar beams are implemented on gantry-less horizontal beam-line with patients in sitting or standing positions.

Methods:We have selected ten patients (seven head-and-neck, one thoracic, one abdominal and one pelvic case) with clinically delivered double scattering (DS) or PBS treatment plans with beam angles that were challenging to achieve without a gantry. After removing these beams angles, PBS plans were optimized for gantry-less intensity modulated proton therapy (IMPT) or single field optimization (SFO) with multi-criteria optimization (MCO). For head-and-neck patients who were treated by DS, we generated PBS plans with non-coplanar beams for comparison. Dose-volume-histograms (DVHs), target homogeneity index (HI), mean dose, D_2 and D_98 were reported. Robustness analysis was performed with ±2.5 mm setup errors and ±3.5% range uncertainties for three head-and-neck patients.

Results:PBS-gantry-less plans provided more homogenous target coverage and significant improvements on organs-at-risk (OARs) sparing, compared to passive scattering treatments with a gantry. The PBS gantry-less treatments reduced the HI for target coverage by 1.3% to 47.2%, except for a suprasellar patient and a liver patient. The PBS-gantry-less plans reduced the D_mean of OARs by 3.6% to 67.4%. The PBS-gantry plans had similar target coverage and only marginal improvements on OAR sparing as compared to the PBS-gantry-less plans. These two PBS plans also had similar robustness relative to range uncertainties and setup errors.

Conclusion:The gantry-less plans have with less mean dose to OARs and more homogeneous target coverage. Although the PBS-gantry plans have slightly improved target coverage and OARs sparing, the overall benefit of having a gantry to provide non-coplanar beams is debatable.

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