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Feasibility of Markerless Tumor Tracking by Sequential Dual-Energy Fluoroscopy On a Clinical Tumor Tracking System

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J Dhont*, K Poels , D Verellen , K Tournel , T Gevaert , F Steenbeke , M Burghelea , M De Ridder , Department of Radiotherapy, Universitair Ziekenhuis Brussel, Brussels, Belgium


SU-E-J-59 (Sunday, July 12, 2015) 3:00 PM - 6:00 PM Room: Exhibit Hall

Purpose:To evaluate the feasibility of markerless tumor tracking through the implementation of a novel dual-energy imaging approach into the clinical dynamic tracking (DT) workflow of the Vero SBRT system.

Methods:Two sequential 20 s (11 Hz) fluoroscopy sequences were acquired at the start of one fraction for 7 patients treated for primary and metastatic lung cancer with DT on the Vero system. Sequences were acquired using 2 on-board kV imaging systems located at ±45° from the MV beam axis, at respectively 60 kVp (3.2 mAs) and 120 kVp (2.0 mAs). Offline, a normalized cross-correlation algorithm was applied to match the high (HE) and low energy (LE) images. Per breathing phase (inhale, exhale, maximum inhale and maximum exhale), the 5 best-matching HE and LE couples were extracted for DE subtraction. A contrast analysis according to gross tumor volume was conducted based on contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR). Improved tumor visibility was quantified using an improvement ratio.

Results:Using the implanted fiducial as a benchmark, HE-LE sequence matching was effective for 13 out of 14 imaging angles. Overlying bony anatomy was removed on all DE images. With the exception of two imaging angles, the DE images showed no significantly improved tumor visibility compared to HE images, with an improvement ratio averaged over all patients of 1.46 ± 1.64. Qualitatively, it was observed that for those imaging angles that showed no significantly improved CNR, the tumor tissue could not be reliably visualized on neither HE nor DE images due to a total or partial overlap with other soft tissue.

Conclusion:Dual-energy subtraction imaging by sequential orthogonal fluoroscopy was shown feasible by implementing an additional LE fluoroscopy sequence. However, for most imaging angles, DE images did not provide improved tumor visibility over single-energy images. Optimizing imaging angles is likely to improve tumor visibility and the efficacy of dual-energy imaging.

Funding Support, Disclosures, and Conflict of Interest: This work was in part sponsored by corporate funding from BrainLAB AG.(BrainLAB AG, Feldkirchen, Germany)

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