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Developing a Pencil Beam Dose Calculation Algorithm for CyberKnife System

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B Liang

B Liang12*, B Liu1 , F Zhou1 , S Xu3 , Q Wu2 , (1) Image processing center, Beihang University, Beijing, China,(2) Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC,(3) Chinese PLA General Hospital, Beijing, China


SU-E-T-252 (Sunday, July 12, 2015) 3:00 PM - 6:00 PM Room: Exhibit Hall

Purpose: Currently there are two dose calculation algorithms available in the Cyberknife planning system: ray-tracing and Monte Carlo, which is either not accurate or time-consuming for irregular field shaped by the MLC that was recently introduced. The purpose of this study is to develop a fast and accurate pencil beam dose calculation algorithm which can handle irregular field.

Methods: A pencil beam dose calculation algorithm widely used in Linac system is modified. The algorithm models both primary (short range) and scatter (long range) components with a single input parameter: TPR₂₀/₁₀. The TPR₂₀/₁₀ value was first estimated to derive an initial set of pencil beam model parameters (PBMP). The agreement between predicted and measured TPRs for all cones were evaluated using the root mean square of the difference (RMSTPR), which was then minimized by adjusting PBMPs. PBMPs are further tuned to minimize OCR RMS (RMSocr) by focusing at the outfield region. Finally, an arbitrary intensity profile is optimized by minimizing RMSocr difference at infield region. To test model validity, the PBMPs were obtained by fitting to only a subset of cones (4) and applied to all cones (12) for evaluation.

Results: With RMS values normalized to the dmax and all cones combined, the average RMSTPR at build-up and descending region is 2.3% and 0.4%, respectively. The RMSocr at infield, penumbra and outfield region is 1.5%, 7.8% and 0.6%, respectively. Average DTA in penumbra region is 0.5mm. There is no trend found in TPR or OCR agreement among cones or depths.

Conclusion: We have developed a pencil beam algorithm for Cyberknife system. The prediction agrees well with commissioning data. Only a subset of measurements is needed to derive the model. Further improvements are needed for TPR buildup region and OCR penumbra. Experimental validations on MLC shaped irregular field needs to be performed.

Funding Support, Disclosures, and Conflict of Interest: This work was partially supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (61171005) and the China Scholarship Council (CSC).

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