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Initial Evaluation of Four Dimensional Diffusion-Weighted MRI (4D-DWI) and Its Effect On Apparent Diffusion Coefficient (ADC) Measurement

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Y Liu

Y Liu1*, F Yin2 , B Czito2 , M Bashir2 , M Palta2, X Zhong3 , B Dale3 , J Cai2 , (1) Duke University Medical Physics Program, (2) Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC,(3) Siemens Healthcare, Durham, NC


SU-F-303-13 (Sunday, July 12, 2015) 4:00 PM - 6:00 PM Room: 303

Purpose:Diffusion-weighted imaging(DWI) has been shown to have superior tumor-to-tissue contrast for cancer detection.This study aims at developing and evaluating a four dimensional DWI(4D-DWI) technique using retrospective sorting method for imaging respiratory motion for radiotherapy planning,and evaluate its effect on Apparent Diffusion Coefficient(ADC) measurement.

Materials/Methods:Image acquisition was performed by repeatedly imaging a volume of interest using a multi-slice single-shot 2D-DWI sequence in the axial planes and cine MRI(served as reference) using FIESTA sequence.Each 2D-DWI image were acquired in xyz-diffusion-directions with a high b-value(b=500s/mm2).The respiratory motion was simultaneously recorded using bellows.Retrospective sorting was applied in each direction to reconstruct 4D-DWI.The technique was evaluated using a computer simulated 4D-digital human phantom(XCAT),a motion phantom and a healthy volunteer under an IRB-approved study.Motion trajectories of regions-of-interests(ROI) were extracted from 4D-DWI and compared with reference.The mean motion trajectory amplitude differences(D) between the two was calculated.To quantitatively analyze the motion artifacts,XCAT were controlled to simulate regular motion and the motions of 10 liver cancer patients.4D-DWI,free-breathing DWI(FB-DWI) were reconstructed.Tumor volume difference(VD) of each phase of 4D-DWI and FB-DWI from the input static tumor were calculated.Furthermore, ADC was measured for each phase of 4D-DWI and FB-DWI data,and mean tumor ADC values(M-ADC) were calculated.Mean M-ADC over all 4D-DWI phases was compared with M-ADC calculated from FB-DWI.

Results:4D-DWI of XCAT,the motion phantom and the healthy volunteer demonstrated the respiratory motion clearly.ROI D values were 1.9mm,1.7mm and 2.0mm,respectively.For motion artifacts analysis,XCAT 4D-DWI images show much less motion artifacts compare to FB-DWI.Mean VD for 4D-WDI and FB-DWI were 8.5±1.4% and 108±15%,respectively.Mean M-ADC for ADC measured from 4D-DWI and M-ADC measured from FB-DWI were (2.29±0.04)*0.001*mm2/s and (3.80±0.01)*0.001*mm2/s,respectively.ADC value ground-truth is 2.24*0.001*mm2/s from the input of the simulation.

Conclusion:A respiratory correlated 4D-DWI technique has been initially evaluated in phantoms and a human subject.Comparing to free breathing DWI,4D-DWI can lead to more accurate measurement of ADC.

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