Customizable Radiotherapy Enhancement (CuRE) for Retinal Diseases Using Nanoparticles
Y Altundal1*, E Sajo1, G Makrigiorgos2, W Ngwa3, (1) University of Massachusetts at Lowell, Lowell, MA, (2) Dana Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, MA, (3) Brigham & Woman's Hospital, Boston, MASU-E-T-302 Sunday 3:00PM - 6:00PM Room: Exhibit Hall
Purpose: Employing non₋toxic radiosensitizing gold nanoparticles (GNPs) targeted to disease endothelial cells has been proposed as a new strategy to substantially enhance radiotherapy treatment efficacy for neovascular Age-related Macular Degeneration (AMD). In this work, radiation dose enhancement from GNPs and carboplatin nanoparticles (CNPs), which have recently been shown to provide chemotherapy effect for retinal disease, is also investigated towards treatment of retinoblastoma (RB) and choroidal melanoma (CM).
Methods: The disease endothelial cell (EC) was modeled as in previous studies with the targeted nanoparticles (NPs) attached to the exterior of the EC. The energy deposited in the EC nucleus by radiation-induced electrons from CNPs was calculated based on an analytic formula incorporating the electron energy-loss formula of Cole. The nucleus dose enhancement factor (nDEF) representing the ratio of the dose to the nucleus with and without the presence of NPs was estimated. The nDEF was calculated using 100 kVp photons employed by Oraya Therapy for treating neovascular AMD and, I₋125 and Pd-103 sources for treating RB and CM. Local NPs concentrations of 1 ₋ 38 mg/g were used, which have been reported safe in small animal RB model studies.
Results: The results revealed nDEF values of 1.30 ₋ 11.66 for GNPs over the concentration range 1-38 mg/g for 100 kVp photons. Meanwhile, values of up to 18.7 and 14.8 were obtained when using Pd₋103 and I₋125 respectively. Significant dose enhancement was also observed for CNPs for the investigated concentration range.
Conclusion: The results predict that substantial dose enhancement may be achieved by employing GNPs or CNPs as adjuvants to radiotherapy for neovascular retinal diseases like, RB and CM. The results provide impetus for developing the application of such nanoparticles to boost treatment effectiveness for such retinal diseases treated with radiotherapy.