2022 AAPM 64th Annual Meeting
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Session Title: Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Emerging Technologies and Quantitative Applications
Question 1: Which pulse sequence produces less susceptibility-caused geometrics distortion in diffusion weighted images:
Reference:Porter DA, Heidemann RM. High resolution diffusion weighted imaging using readout segmented echo planar imaging, parallel imaging and a two dimensional navigator based reacquisition. Magn Reson Med 2009;62:468 75.
Choice A:single-shot echo-planar imaging (EPI) sequence with a parallel imaging factor of 0
Choice B:Multishot EPI sequence with a parallel imaging factor of 3-4
Choice C:Multishot readout segmentation of long variable echo trains (RESOLVE) EPI sequence
Question 2: Which pulse sequence can acquire dynamic contrast enhanced (DCE) images for vasculature parameter quantification with less susceptibility-caused geometrics distortion
Reference:M.S. Shiroishi, G. Castellazzi, J. L. Boxerman, F. D’Amore, M. Essig, T. B. Nguyen, J. M. Provenzale, D. S. Enterline, N. Anzalone, A. Dorfler, A. Rovira, M. Wintermark, M. Law. Principles of T2*-weighted dynamic susceptibility contrast MRI technique in brain tumor imaging. J Magn Reson Imaging 2015; 41(2):296-313.
Choice A:T2* weighted EPI based gradient-echo sequence
Choice B:T2 weighted fast spin-echo sequence
Choice C:T1 weighted fast gradient-echo sequence
Question 3: How to reduce motion artifacts in abdominal DCE MRI
Reference:Reference: Hersh Chandarana 1, Tobias K Block, Andrew B Rosenkrantz, Ruth P Lim, Danny Kim, David J Mossa, James S Babb, Berthold Kiefer, Vivian S Lee. Free-breathing radial 3D fat-suppressed T1-weighted gradient echo sequence: a viable alternative for contrast-enhanced liver imaging in patients unable to suspend respiration. Invest Radiol 2011; 46(10):648-53.
Choice A:Breath-holding
Choice B:Motion triggered acquisition
Choice C:Free-breathing radial sampling with post-processing motion correction
Question 4: Choline is believed to be associated with which of the following activities
Reference:Horská A, Barker PB. Imaging of brain tumors: MR spectroscopy and metabolic imaging. Neuroimaging Clin N Am. 2010;20(3):293-310. doi:10.1016/j.nic.2010.04.003
Choice A:Loss or dysfunction of normal neuronal tissue
Choice B:BAnaerobic glycolysis
Choice C:Membrane synthesis and degradation
Choice D:one of the above
Question 5: Which of the below technique is a specific type of CEST imaging?
Reference:Wu B, Warnock G, Zaiss M, et al. An overview of CEST MRI for non-MR physicists. EJNMMI Phys. 2016;3(1):19. doi:10.1186/s40658-016-0155-2
Choice A:AT1 weighted MRI
Choice B:Diffusion weighted MRI
Choice C:Proton density weighted MRI
Choice D:Amide proton transfer (APT) weighted MRI
Question 6: Parameters’ quantification in Magnetic Resonance Fingerprinting relies on:
Reference:Ma, D., Gulani, V., Seiberlich, N. et al. Magnetic resonance fingerprinting. Nature 495, 187–192 (2013). https://doi.org/10.1038/nature11971
Choice A:The application of tailored analytic formulas for each parameter
Choice B:Pattern recognition
Choice C:A global iterative numerical solution
Choice D:The solution of an inverse problem
Question 7: Compared to morphologic MRI, quantitative MRI could improve adaptive radiotherapy because:
Reference:van Houdt PJ, Saeed H, Thorwarth D, et al. Integration of quantitative imaging biomarkers in clinical trials for MR-guided radiotherapy: Conceptual guidance for multicentre studies from the MR-Linac Consortium Imaging Biomarker Working Group. Eur J Cancer. 2021 Aug;153:64-71. doi: 10.1016/j.ejca.2021.04.041.
Choice A:qMRI parameter values are reliable over time
Choice B:Tissue changes during treatment are more visible in multi-color maps than in grayscale images
Choice C:Contrast-to-noise ratio between pathologic and normal tissue is higher
Choice D:Signal-to-noise ratio is higher in parametric maps than in MR images.
Question 8: Which of the following statements is INCORRECT about multi-parametric MRI?
Reference:Kumar V, Bora GS, Kumar R, Jagannathan NR. Multiparametric (mp) MRI of prostate cancer. Prog Nucl Magn Reson Spectrosc. 2018;105:23-40. Marino MA, Helbich T, Baltzer P, Pinker-Domenig K. Multiparametric MRI of the breast: A review. J Magn Reson Imaging. 2018;47(2):301-315
Choice A:Uses same sequences for different anatomical sites
Choice B:Provides more accurate tumor assessment than conventional MRI
Choice C:Brings challenges of analyzing and displaying large amount of data
Choice D:Provides improved reproducibility and reliability than conventional MRI
Question 9: Which one of the following is UNLIKELY to be a radiotherapy application for multi-parametric MRI?
Reference:Citak-Er F, Firat Z, Kovanlikaya I, Ture U, Ozturk-Isik E. Machine-learning in grading of gliomas based on multi-parametric magnetic resonance imaging at 3T. Computers in Biology and Medicine. 2018;99:154-160.
Choice A:Differentiate tumor with hemorrhage, infection, edema, or micro-infiltration
Choice B:Treatment assessment
Choice C:Generate synthetic CT
Choice D:Real-time treatment monitoring
Question 10: What one of the following statements is INCORRECT about 4D-MRI?
Reference:Stemkens B1, Paulson ES, Tijssen RHN. Nuts and bolts of 4D-MRI for radiotherapy. Phys Med Biol. 2018 Oct 23;63(21):21TR01. doi: 10.1088/1361-6560/aae56d.
Choice A:Is also called respiratory correlated MRI
Choice B:Has better soft-tissue contrast than 4D-CT
Choice C:Is routinely used in the clinic for tumor motion management
Choice D:Has inconsistent performance among patients
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