2022 AAPM 64th Annual Meeting
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Session Title: Bridging Diagnostic Imaging and Radiotherapy: A Pediatric Focus
Question 1: What is the single greatest CT technology that leads to the best dose optimization for pediatric patients?
Reference:McCollough et al. Strategies for reducing radiation dose in CT. Radiol Clin North AM. 2009, 47(1):27-40.
Choice A:Tube current modulation
Choice B:Organ dose modulation
Choice C:kV modulation
Choice D:Fixed techniques (e.g., mA, kV, rotation time)
Question 2: What are appropriate figure of merits (FOM) to be used to optimize CT image quality?
Reference:Reference: Verdun et al. Image quality in CT: From physical measurements to model observers. Physica Medica, 2015, 31(8):823-843.
Choice A:d’ and/or CHO
Choice B:Image noise
Choice C:CNR
Choice D:SNR
Choice E:All the above
Question 3: SSDE is calculated using what formula?
Reference:Boone et al. AAPM TG Report 204, 220, and 293 (AAPM website)
Choice A:CTDIw*fsize
Choice B:CTDIvol*fsize
Choice C:DLP*fsize
Choice D:E*fsize
Question 4: For which needs in pediatric MR simulation a higher static magnetic field (B0) is more advantageous? (1) Fast imaging to minimize scan time for patients undergoing anesthesia (2) Larger bore size to accommodate immobilization devices and comfort for patients (3) High resolution and signal-to-noise to delineate small organs (4) Reduced specific absorption rate (SAR) to prevent overheating patients
Reference:AAPM Task group 284 report: magnetic resonance imaging simulation in radiotherapy: considerations for clinical implementation, optimization, and quality assurance, Carri K. Glide-Hurst, Eric S. Paulson, Kiaran McGee, Neelam Tyagi, Yanle Hu, James Balter, John Bayouth. Medical Physics, Vol 48, Issue 7, pp e636-e670, 2021.
Choice A:(2) and (3)
Choice B:(1) and (3)
Choice C:(1), (2), and (3)
Choice D:(1) and (4)
Question 5: Which statement below on pediatric 4D MRI is NOT correct?
Reference:Quantification of pediatric abdominal organ motion with a 4-dimensional magnetic resonance imaging method, Jinsoo Uh, Matthew J. Krasin, Yimei Li, Xingyu Li, Christopher Tinkle, John T. Lucas, Thomas E. Merchant, Chia-ho Hua. Internal Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics, Vol 99, Issue 1, pp 227-237, 2017.
Choice A:Respiration rate of younger patients can be affected by anesthesia.
Choice B:Respiration-induced motion may be asymmetric and significantly vary across different anatomies.
Choice C:External surrogate signal is usually more reliable than internal surrogate signal for younger patients.
Choice D:Radial sampling in K-space helps mitigate motion-induced image artifacts in contrast to cartesian sampling.
Question 6: Which of the following factors has the least impact on geometric fidelity of MRI?
Reference:MRI for radiotherapy, Gary Liney and Uulke van der Heide, Editors, Springer, 2019 .
Choice A:Body size of patients
Choice B:Metallic implants
Choice C:Magnetic field strength and homogeneity
Choice D:Distance between receiver coil and patient
Choice E:Receiver bandwidth
Question 7: Common 3D printing applications in radiotherapy are
Reference:Rooney MK, Rosenberg DM, Braunstein S, Cunha A, Damato AL, Ehler E, Pawlicki T, Robar J, Tatebe K, Golden DW. Three-dimensional printing in radiation oncology: A systematic review of the literature. J Appl Clin Med Phys. 2020 Aug;21(8):15-26. doi: 10.1002/acm2.12907. Epub 2020 May 27. PMID: 32459059; PMCID: PMC7484837.
Choice A:Quality assurance phantoms
Choice B:Brachytherapy applicators
Choice C:Bolus
Choice D:All of the above
Question 8: 3D printed patient specific models are used as
Reference:Aimar A, Palermo A, Innocenti B. The Role of 3D Printing in Medical Applications: A State of the Art. J Healthc Eng. 2019 Mar 21;2019:5340616. doi: 10.1155/2019/5340616. PMID: 31019667; PMCID: PMC6451800.
Choice A:Understanding of the complex pathological anatomy
Choice B:Presurgical planning
Choice C:Patient and trainee education tools
Choice D:All of the above
Question 9: Patient specific 3D printed models and devices can be printed from computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and optical surface scan imaging.
Reference:Sanjay P. Prabhu, Chapter 3 - From CT and MR Images to 3D Printed Models—Software Basics for the Surgeon, Editor(s): Matthew Dipaola, Felasfa M. Wodajo, 3D Printing in Orthopaedic Surgery, Elsevier, 2019, Pages 31-40, ISBN 9780323581189, https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-323-58118-9.00003-8.
Choice A:Yes
Choice B:No
Choice C:Yes for CT and MRI but no for optical scan imaging
Question 10: Patient specific devices for radiotherapy can be built in a 3D printing lab at the point of care.
Reference:Jacob Christian Lindegaard, Mikkel Lænsø Madsen, Anders Traberg, Bjarne Meisner, Søren Kynde Nielsen, Kari Tanderup, Harald Spejlborg, Lars Ulrik Fokdal, Ole Nørrevang. Individualised 3D printed vaginal template for MRI guided brachytherapy in locally advanced cervical cancer, Radiotherapy and Oncology, Volume 118, Issue 1, 2016, Pages 173-175, ISSN 0167-8140, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.radonc.2015.12.012
Choice A:Yes
Choice B:No
Choice C:Only for patient-specific QA devices
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