2022 AAPM 64th Annual Meeting
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Session Title: Eliminating Health Disparities in Clinical Trials: How can Physicists Contribute?
Question 1: In a secondary analysis of the TROG 02.02 randomized head and neck cancer trial, major deficiencies in radiation plan quality were associated with:
Reference:Peters et al. JCO 2010 Jun 20;28(18):2996-3001.
Choice A:< 5 enrolled patients at a treatment center
Choice B:>1 involved lymph node
Choice C:<10 staff physicists on staff
Choice D:< 4 years of treating physician experience
Question 2: (True/False) An analysis of enrollment on RTOG clinical trials, highest minority accrual clusters in areas of highest minority population density.
Reference:Brunner et al. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2015 Nov 1;93(3):702-9
Choice A:True
Choice B:False
Question 3: Twenty percent of patients enrolled in the VA Larynx Trial (NEJM, 1991) were of non-White race. What was the loss to follow up rate?
Reference:Wolf et al. NEJM 1991, 324 (24): 1685-1690.
Choice A:2%
Choice B:7%
Choice C:15%
Choice D:30%
Question 4: A recent study of proton therapy patients treated between 2010-2018 found which disparity among the patient population?
Reference:Bitterman, D.S., et al., Race Disparities in Proton Radiotherapy Use for Cancer Treatment in Patients Enrolled in Children's Oncology Group Trials. JAMA Oncol, 2020. 6(9): p. 1465-1468.
Choice A:Only adults were treated with proton therapy
Choice B:Black pediatric patients were statistically less likely to receive proton therapy
Choice C:Proton therapy was only administered to celebrities
Choice D:Patients turned down proton therapy in favor of Carbon therapy
Question 5: (True/False) Insurance denials prevent many cancer patients from receiving proton therapy.
Reference:Ning, M.S., et al., The Insurance Approval Process for Proton Radiation Therapy: A Significant Barrier to Patient Care. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys, 2019. 104(4): p. 724-733.
Choice A:True
Choice B:False
Question 6: A recent study of breast cancer treatment for non-English speaking patients found what tool was underutilized?
Reference:Shukla, U., et al. Disparities in Radiation Therapy: Practice Patterns Analysis of Deep Inspiratory Breath Hold Use in Non-English Speakers. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys, 2022. 113(1): p. 21-25.
Choice A:Step stools
Choice B:BB markers
Choice C:Deep Inspiratory Breath Hold
Choice D:Bolus
Question 7: (True/False) Cross-population training and testing of AI models is one method of evaluating for population bias.
Reference:Santosh KC. AI-Driven Tools for Coronavirus Outbreak: Need of Active Learning and Cross-Population Train/Test Models on Multitudinal/Multimodal Data. J Med Syst. 2020 May;44(5):93.
Choice A:True
Choice B:False
Question 8: (True/False) Site-specific bias has been observed in related imaging fields, such as digital pathology of breast cancer.
Reference:Howard FM, Dolezal J, Kochanny S, Schulte J, Chen H, Heij L, et al. The impact of site-specific digital histology signatures on deep learning model accuracy and bias. Nat Commun. 2021 Dec;12(1):4423.
Choice A:True
Choice B:False
Question 9: Feed-forward neural networks update model weights by using _.
Reference:Goodfellow I, Bengio Y, Courville A. Deep learning. MIT press; 2016 Nov 10. https://www.deeplearningbook.org/
Choice A:Standardization
Choice B:Normalization
Choice C:Bias
Choice D:Backpropagation
Choice E:All of the above
Question 10: Which of the following methods may be utilized to mitigate AI bias in algorithms?
Reference:Bellamy RK, Dey K, Hind M, Hoffman SC, Houde S, Kannan K, Lohia P, Martino J, Mehta S, Mojsilovic A, Nagar S. AI Fairness 360: An extensible toolkit for detecting, understanding, and mitigating unwanted algorithmic bias. arXiv preprint arXiv:1810.01943. 2018 Oct 3.
Choice A:Optimized preprocessing
Choice B:Disparate impact remover
Choice C:Adversarial debiasing
Choice D:Calibrated equalized odds post-processing
Choice E:All of the above
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