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Ultrasound and Fluoroscopy Based Intraoperative Image-Guidance System for Dynamic Dosimetry in Prostate Brachytherapy

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J Lee

N Kuo1 , E Dehghan2 , Y Le1 A Deguet1 , E Burdette3 , G Fichtinger4 , J Prince1 , D Song1 , J Lee1*, (1) Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD, (2) Philips Research North America, Briarcliff Manor, NY, (3) Acoustic MedSystems Inc., Savoy, IL, (4) Queen's University, Kingston, ON


SU-D-BRF-7 Sunday 2:05PM - 3:00PM Room: Ballroom F

Purpose: Prostate brachytherapy is a common treatment method for low-risk prostate cancer patients. Intraoperative treatment planning is known to improve the treatment procedure and the outcome. The current limitation of intraoperative treatment planning is the inability to localize the seeds in relation to the prostate. We developed an image-guidance system to fulfill this need to achieve intraoperative dynamic dosimetry in prostate brachytherapy.

Methods: Our system is based on standard imaging equipments available in the operating room, including the transrectal ultrasound (TRUS) and the mobile C-arm. A simple fiducial is added to compute the C-arm pose. Three fluoroscopic images and an ultrasound volume of the seeds and the prostate are acquired and processed by four image processing algorithms: seed segmentation, fiducial detection with pose estimation, seed reconstruction, and seeds-to-TRUS registration. The updated seed positions allow the physician to assess the quality of implantation and dynamically adjust the treatment plan during the course of surgery to achieve improved exit dosimetry.

Results: The system was tested on 10 phantoms and 37 patients. Seed segmentation resulted in a 1% false negative and 2% false positive rates. Fiducial detection with pose estimation resulted in a detection rate of 98%. Seed reconstruction had a mean reconstruction error of 0.4 mm. Seeds-to-TRUS registration had a mean registration error of 1.3 mm. The total processing time from image acquisition to registration was approximately 1 minute.

Conclusion: We present an image-guidance system for intraoperative dynamic dosimetry in prostate brachytherapy. Using standard imaging equipments and a simple fiducial, our system can be easily adopted in any clinics. Robust image processing algorithms enable accurate and fast computation of the delivered dose. Especially, the system enables detection of possible hot/cold spots during the surgery, allowing the physician to address these in the operating room rather than requiring additional therapy afterwards.

Funding Support, Disclosures, and Conflict of Interest: This research was supported in part by the National Institutes of Health/National Cancer Institute (NIH/NCI) under grant 2R44CA099374 and grant 1R01CA151395, and in part by the Department of Defense (DoD) under grant W81XWH-05-1-0407.

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