Encrypted login | home

Program Information

Imaging: CT Dose Optimization Technologies I

no image available
K Denison

T Katchalski

K Denison1*, T Katchalski2*, (1) GE Healthcare, Waukesha, WI, (2) Philips Medical Technologies, Ltd., Haifa


MO-PIS-Exhibit Hall-1 Monday 11:15AM - 12:15PM Room: Exhibit Hall

Partners in Solutions is an exciting new program in which AAPM partners with our vendors to present practical “hands-on” information about the equipment and software systems that we use in our clinics. The imaging topic this year is CT scanner dose optimization capabilities. Note that the sessions are being held in a special purpose room built on the Exhibit Hall Floor, to encourage further interaction with the vendors.

Dose Optimization Capabilities of GE Computed Tomography Scanners
Presentation Time: 11:15 - 11:45 AM

GE Healthcare is dedicated to the delivery of high quality clinical images through the development of technologies, which optimize the application of ionizing radiation. In computed tomography, dose management solutions fall into four categories:

1. Image Reconstruction Algorithms

Introduced in 2008, Adaptive Statistical Iterative Reconstruction (ASiR) employs projection data and statistical modeling to decrease noise in the reconstructed image – creating an opportunity for mA reduction in the acquisition of diagnostic images.

Veo represents true Model Based Iterative Reconstruction (MBiR). Using high-level algorithms in tandem with advanced computing power, Veo enables lower pixel noise standard deviation and improved spatial resolution within a single image.

2. OptiDose Technologies

Advanced Adaptive Image Filters allow for maintenance of spatial resolution while reducing image noise. Examples of adaptive image space filters include Neuro 3-D filters and Cardiac Noise Reduction Filters.

AutomA adjusts mA along the z-axis and is the CT equivalent of auto exposure control in conventional x-ray systems. Dynamic Z-axis Tracking offers an additional opportunity for dose reduction in helical acquisitions while SmartTrack Z-axis Tracking serves to ensure beam, collimator and detector alignment during tube rotation. SmartmA provides angular mA modulation.

ECG Helical Modulation reduces mA during the systolic phase of the heart cycle. SmartBeam optimization uses bowtie beam-shaping hardware and software to filter off-axis x-rays – minimizing dose and reducing x-ray scatter.

3. Dose Management Tools

The DICOM Radiation Dose Structured Report (RDSR) generates a dose report at the conclusion of every examination. Dose Check preemptively notifies CT operators when scan parameters exceed user-defined dose thresholds. DoseWatch is an information technology application providing vendor-agnostic dose tracking and analysis for CT (and all other diagnostic x-ray modalities)

4. Clinical Applications

• SnapShot Pulse improves coronary CTA dose management.
• VolumeShuttle uses two acquisitions to increase coverage, decrease dose, and conserve on contrast administration.
• Color-Coding for Kids applies the Broselow-Luten Pediatric System to facilitate pediatric emergency care and reduce medical errors.
• FeatherLight achieves dose optimization through pediatric procedure-based protocols.
• Adventure Series scanners provide a child-friendly imaging environment promoting patient cooperation with resultant reduction in retakes and patient motion.

Philips CT Dose Optimization Tools and Advanced Reconstruction
Presentation Time: 11:45 - 12:15 PM

The first part of the talk will cover “Dose Reduction and Dose Optimization Technologies” present in Philips CT Scanners. The main Technologies to be presented include:
•DoseRight and tube current modulation (DoseRight, Z-DOM, 3D-DOM, DoseRight Cardiac)
•Special acquisition modes
•Beam filtration and beam shapers
•Eclipse collimator and ClearRay collimator
•NanoPanel detector

DoseRight will cover automatic tube current selection that automatically adjusts the dose for the individual patient. The presentation will explore the modulation techniques currently employed in Philips CT scanners and will include the algorithmic concepts as well as illustrative examples. Modulation and current selection technologies to be covered include the Automatic Current Selection component of DoseRight, ZDOM longitudinal dose modulation, 3D-DOM (combination of longitudinal and rotational dose modulation), Cardiac Dose right (an ECG based dose modulation scheme), and the DoseRight Index (DRI) IQ index.

The special acquisition modes covers acquisition techniques such as prospective gating that is designed to reduce exposure to the patient through the Cardiac Step and Shoot scan mode. This mode can substitute the much higher dose retrospective scan modes for certain types of cardiac imaging.

The beam filtration and beam shaper portion will discuss the variety of filtration and beam shaping configurations available on Philips scanners. This topic includes the x-ray beam characteristics, tube filtration as well as dose compensator characteristics. The Eclipse collimator, ClearRay collimator and the NanoPanel detector portion will discuss additional technologies specific to wide coverage CT that address some of the unique challenges encountered and techniques employed to optimize image quality and optimize dose utilization. The Eclipse collimator reduces extraneous exposure by actively blocking the radiation tails at either end of helical scans that do not contribute to the image generation. The ClearRay collimator and the NanoPanel detector optimize the quality of the signal that reaches the detectors by addressing the increased scattered radiation present in wide coverage and the NanoPanel detector adds superior electronic noise characteristics valuable when imaging at a low dose level.

The second part of the talk will present “Advanced Reconstruction Technologies” currently available on Philips CT Scanners. The talk will cover filtered back projection (FBP), iDose4 and Iterative Model Reconstruction (IMR). Each reconstruction method will include a discussion of the algorithm as well as similarities and differences between the algorithms. Examples illustrating the merits of each algorithm will be presented, and techniques and metrics to characterize the performance of each type of algorithm will be presented.

The Filtered Back projection portion will discuss and provide a brief summary of relevant standard image reconstruction techniques in common use, and discuss the common tradeoffs when using the FBP algorithm. The iDose4 portion will present the algorithms used for iDose4 as well the different levels. The meaning of different levels of iDose4 available will be presented and quantified. Guidelines for selection iDose4 parameters based on the imaging need will be explained. The different image quality goals available with iDose4 and specifically how iDose4 enables noise reduction, spatial resolution improvement or both will be explained.

The approaches to leveraging the benefits of iDose4 such as improved spatial resolution, decreased noise, and artifact prevention will be described and quantified; and measurements and metrics behind the improvements will be presented. The image quality benefits in specific imaging situations as well as how to best combine the technology with other dose reduction strategies to ensure the best image quality at a given dose level will be presented.

Insight into the IMR algorithm as well as contrast to the iDose4 techniques and performance characteristics will be discussed. Metrics and techniques for characterizing this class of algorithm and IQ performance will be presented. The image quality benefits and the dose reduction capabilities of IMR will be explored. Illustrative examples of the noise reduction, spatial resolution improvement, and low contrast detectability improvements of the reconstruction method will be presented: clinical cases and phantom measurements demonstrating the benefits of IMR in the areas of low dose imaging, spatial resolution and low contrast resolution are discussed and the technical details behind the measurements will be presented compared to both iDose4 and traditional filtered back projection (FBP).

Contact Email: