Encrypted login | home

Program Information

Normalized Embryo/fetus Doses for Fluoroscopically Guided Pacemaker Implantation Procedures Calculated Using a Monte Carlo Technique

J Damilakis

J Damilakis1*, J Stratakis2 , G Solomou3 , (1) University of Crete, Heraklion, Greece,(2) University of Crete, Heraklion, Greece, (3) University of Crete, Heraklion, Greece


SU-E-I-42 Sunday 3:00PM - 6:00PM Room: Exhibit Hall

Purpose: It is well known that pacemaker implantation is sometimes needed in pregnant patients with symptomatic bradycardia. To our knowledge, there is no reported experience regarding radiation doses to the unborn child resulting from fluoroscopy during pacemaker implantation. The purpose of the current study was to develop a method for estimating embryo/fetus dose from fluoroscopically guided pacemaker implantation procedures performed on pregnant patients during all trimesters of gestation.

Methods: The Monte Carlo N-Particle (MCNP) radiation transport code was employed in this study. Three mathematical anthropomorphic phantoms representing the average pregnant patient at the first, second and third trimesters of gestation were generated using Bodybuilder software (White Rock science, White Rock, NM). The normalized embryo/fetus dose from the posteroanterior (PA), the 30° left-anterior oblique (LAO) and the 30° right-anterior oblique (RAO) projections were calculated for a wide range of kVp (50-120 kVp) and total filtration values (2.5-9.0 mm Al).

Results: The results consist of radiation doses normalized to a) entrance skin dose (ESD) and b) dose area product (DAP) so that the dose to the unborn child from any fluoroscopic technique and x-ray device used can be calculated. ESD normalized doses ranged from 0.008 (PA, first trimester) to 2.519 μGy/mGy (RAO, third trimester). DAP normalized doses ranged from 0.051 (PA, first trimester) to 12.852 μGy/Gycm2 (RAO, third trimester).

Conclusion: Embryo/fetus doses from fluoroscopically guided pacemaker implantation procedures performed on pregnant patients during all stages of gestation can be estimated using the method developed in this study.

Funding Support, Disclosures, and Conflict of Interest: This study was supported by the Greek Ministry of Education and Religious Affairs, General Secretariat for Research and Technology, Operational Program 'Education and Lifelong Learning', ARISTIA (Research project: CONCERT)

Contact Email: